Symptoms & causes of Coronavirus disease
Coronavirus disease are a family of viruses that can cause diseases such as the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In 2019, a new Coronavirus disease was identified as the cause of a disease outbreak that originated in China.
The virus is now known as severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease it causes is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Cases of COVID-19 have been reported in an increasing number of countries, including the US public health groups. As the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). USA, They are monitoring the situation and posting updates on their websites. The WHO declared a global pandemic in March 2020. These groups have also issued recommendations to prevent and treat the disease.
The signs and symptoms of COVID-19 may appear two to 14 days after exposure and may include:
- Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
Other symptoms may include:
- Runny nose
- Sore throat
The severity of COVID-19 symptoms can range from very mild to severe. Some people have no symptoms. People who are elderly or have existing chronic medical conditions, such as heart or lung disease or diabetes, may be at increased risk for serious disease. This is similar to what is seen with other respiratory diseases, such as influenza.
When to see a doctor
Contact your doctor or clinic right away if you have symptoms of COVID-19, if you have been exposed to someone with COVID-19, or if you live or have traveled from an area with continuous spread of COVID-19 as determined by the CDC and WHO. . Call your doctor ahead of time to report your recent travel and symptoms and possible exposure before going to your appointment.
Anyone with respiratory symptoms who has not been in an area with continuous community spread can contact their doctor or clinic for further recommendations and guidance. Tell your doctor if you have other chronic medical conditions. As the pandemic progresses, it is important to ensure that medical care is available to those who need it most.
It is unclear exactly how contagious the new Coronavirus disease is. It seems to spread from person to person among those in close contact. It can be spread by respiratory drops released when someone with the virus coughs or sneezes.
It can also spread if a person touches a surface with the virus and then touches his mouth, nose, or eyes.
Risk factors for COVID-19 seem to include:
- Recent travel or residence in an area with continued community spread of COVID-19 as determined by CDC or WHO
- Close contact with someone who has COVID-19, such as when a family member or health worker cares for an infected person
Complications can include:
- Pneumonia in both lungs
- Organic failure in various organs
Although there is no vaccine available to prevent infection with the new Coronavirus disease, you can take steps to reduce your risk of infection. The WHO and CDC recommend following these precautions to avoid COVID-19:
- Avoid large events and massive gatherings.
- Avoid close contact (about 6 feet) with anyone who is sick or has symptoms.
- Keep your distance from yourself and others if COVID-19 is spreading in your community, especially if you are at increased risk for serious illness.
- Wash your hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
- Cover your mouth and nose with your elbow or bandana when you cough or sneeze. Discard used tissue.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth if your hands are not clean.
- Avoid sharing plates, glasses, bedding, and other household items if you are sick.
- Clean and disinfect surfaces that you often touch on a daily basis.
- Stay home away from work, school, and public areas if you are sick, unless you are going to get medical care. Avoid taking public transportation if you are sick.
The CDC does not recommend that healthy people wear a mask to protect themselves from respiratory diseases, including COVID-19. Only wear a mask if a healthcare provider tells you to.
The WHO also recommends that you:
- Avoid eating raw or undercooked meat or animal organs.
- Avoid contact with live animals and surfaces they may have touched if you visit live markets in areas that recently had new cases of coronavirus.
If you have a chronic medical condition and may be at increased risk for serious illness, ask your doctor about other ways to protect yourself.
If you plan to travel internationally, check the CDC and WHO websites first for updates and advice. Also look for any health notices that may be in the place where you plan to travel. You may also want to talk to your doctor if you have health problems that make you more susceptible to infections and respiratory complications.
Diagnosis & treatment
If you develop symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and have been exposed to the virus, contact your doctor. Tell him if you have traveled to any area with continued community spread of COVID-19 according to the CDC and WHO. Also tell your doctor if you have had close contact with someone who has been diagnosed with COVID-19.
Your doctor can determine if you should test for COVID-19 based on your signs and symptoms. In deciding whether to test for COVID-19, he or she may also consider whether you have had close contact with someone diagnosed with COVID-19 or have traveled to or lived in an area with continued community spread of COVID-19 in the past 14 days. . .
To test COVID-19, your doctor may take samples, including a saliva (sputum) sample, a nasal swab, and a throat swab, to send to a laboratory for analysis.
Antiviral medication is not currently recommended to treat COVID-19. Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms and may include:
- Pain relievers (ibuprofen or acetaminophen)
- Cough syrup or medicine
- Fluid intake
If your doctor thinks you can get home treatment, he or she can give you special instructions, such as isolating yourself from family and pets as much as possible while you’re sick, and staying home for a period of time. If you are very sick, you may need hospital treatment.
Coping and support
You may feel stress during the COVID-19 outbreak. You may be afraid and anxious or have trouble sleeping.
Here are some tips that can help you cope with stress during the COVID-19 outbreak:
- Avoid watching or reading news about COVID-19 that makes you feel anxious.
- Limit reading or viewing news about COVID-19 to once or twice a day.
- Get the facts about COVID-19 and share it with others. Consult reputable sites such as the CDC and the WHO for information.
- Take care of yourself: eat healthy, get enough sleep and exercise regularly. Consider deep breathing, stretching, and meditation exercises.
- Avoid alcohol and drugs.
- Do something you like, like reading a book, watching a movie, or going for a walk.
- Stay connected with family and friends. Share your feelings with them.
- Aim to be positive and optimistic.
- Show appreciation for the healthcare workers who care for those with COVID-19 in your community.
If stress affects your daily life after several days, contact your doctor. He or she may suggest that you speak to a mental health professional.
Preparing your appointment
You can start by consulting your primary care physician. Or you may be referred immediately to a doctor trained in the treatment of infectious diseases. If you think you have COVID-19, please inform your doctor or clinic before entering. The doctor and medical team can then:
- Contact infection prevention and control and public health officials
- Prepare to move to a room quickly
- Have a mask ready for you
Here is information to help you prepare for your appointment.
Preparing an appointment
When you make the appointment, ask if there is anything you need to do in advance. Make a list of:
- Your symptoms, including any that seem unrelated to the reason for your appointment
- Your recent travels, including any international travels
- Key personal information, including major stresses, recent life changes and family medical history
- All medications, vitamins or other supplements you take, including the doses
- Questions to ask your doctor
Take a family member or friend, if possible, to help you remember the information they provide. Avoid bringing more than one or two people.
Some basic questions to ask your doctor include:
- How likely is the new Coronavirus disease to be causing my symptoms?
- What are other possible causes of my symptoms?
- What proof do I need?
- What course of action do you recommend?
- Are there restrictions that I must follow?
- Should I see a specialist?
What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is likely to ask you several questions, such as:
- When did your symptoms begin?
- Where have you traveled recently?
- Who have you been in close contact with?
- How severe are your symptoms?
For more information about this virus please visit the World Health Organization website.